Start Developing and validating measurements

Developing and validating measurements

For each domain, there were between five and nine survey items for which respondents were asked to express the degree to which they agree with the statement using a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5) with higher scores representing patient reports of relatively more collaborative goal setting.

The expert panel included a psychometrician, a primary care physician, a health communication specialist, and a health psychologist.

Data entry for returned surveys was achieved with optical mark recognition using Remark OMR.

To be included in the current analyzes, the survey respondent had to report engaging in a health-related goal discussion in the previous 6 months with a healthcare provider.

The questionnaire included the PM-CGS items, as well as the following previously validated measures: the Perceived Competence Scale,17 the Trust in Physician Scale,18 and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure.19 The survey also included items specific to the patient's socio-demographic characteristics including age, race, gender, marital status, employment status, income, and level of education achieved.

The collaborative goal setting and self-management measures were treated as latent variables, each comprising five domains.

Results A total of 259 patients responded to the survey (64% response rate), of which 192 were eligible for inclusion.

Results from the factor analysis supported a 37-item measure of patient-perceived CGS spanning five domains: listen and learn; share ideas; caring relationship; measurable objective; and goal achievement support (χ=4366.13, p This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

External validity was evaluated via a structural equation model (SEM) that tested the association of the PM-CGS with self-management behaviors.