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It must be admitted, however, that certain parts of physiology, at this par- ticular period in its development, offer peculiar difficulties to the writers of text-books. By iso-electric is meant that the two electrodes have the same electrical i)otential, and it is obvious that the leading off electrodes must fulfil this condition approximately at least, since otherwise the current obtained from the muscle or nerve could not be attrib- uted to differences in potential in the tissue itself; it would be shown by any other moist conductor connecting the two electrodes. — ^Toshow the structure of a non- poiari za ble elec t rode : 1 , The pad of kaolin or filter paper moistened with physiologica Ll sa- line (Na Cl, 0,7 per cent.) (this la placed on the tissue); 2. Whenever a mot al conductor and a bcnud coiidurt')r romi' into contact there is apt to be polarization.

A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. As the coil and mirror are twisted by the action of the current passing through the former the reflection of the sc&le in the mirror is displaced.

Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. By means of a cross hair in the telescope the an^e of deflection may be read upon the reflected scale.

It is important that the student should p Mp this conception, Ijecause. — The Cootractility of Cilia and Their Geocral Propcr^iee. Frequently the phenomenon of the negative varia- tion is known also as the action current.

in the first place, it is true; and, in the wcond place, it may save him later from disappointment Aod distrust in science if he recognizes that many of our conclu- ijksoa are not the hnal truth, but provisional only, representing tht best that can be done with the knowledge at our conuuand To emphajsize this fact as well as to add somewhat to the interest of the reader short historical resume's have been introtiuced from time to thne, although the question of space a'one, not to men- taoa other considerations, has preventetl any extensive use of such QAterial. »ibilit,v and Eliuitirity of Muwular Tumup, 20.— The Inde- (^1 ' T 'ihility of Muscle, 123. The explanation given for this action current is that the nerve or muscle when excited takes on an electrical condition which is negative as regards any unexcited or less excited portion of the nerve.

The best that the text-book can hope to accomplish in such cases is to give as clear a picture as possible of the tendencies of the time. To prevent polarisation Pofa Itrjrmoml devi9e'ices have born uan L For instance, the electrode may be construcieti as shown in tlie ifi MTam (Fig. The kaolin should have a ncutnil reaction MM iiai«M good kaolin is obtainable it is better to use a plug made of clean fiteor paper macerated in physiological saline and packed tightly into the end of the tube.

Some critics have contended that only those facts or conclu- sions about which there is no difference of opinion should be pre- sented to medical students. — lie (jiw of the Conipowitinn of the Ant^'rior and the Posterior E I \erve*. Above this plug the tube is tilled in lor a part of its length with a ^kturated solution of zinc sulphate into wliich is tmrnerscti a of ainal- Ip OMKlciti cine with a copper wire soldered to it^ end.

Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. The aluminum vane back neglected and the galvanometer may be hung upon ai^ support without reference to the magnetic meridian.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. 117.— The Metabolism of the Nen-e Fiber Durinx Functional Activity, 119. The movable syntcm of this galvanometer possesses considerable inertia.

Those who are acquainted with the subject, however, understand that books written from this 6tandpoint contain much that represents the uncertain compromises of past generations, and that the need of revision is felt as fre- quently for such books as for those constructed on more liberal principles. With a pair of such alagliode* the colarization Ipfavanta L], and by the cons Crurtiou of the electrode the living tissue ia |ki into contact only with the plug of kao Un moisteiietl with physio* ) aalinei Such electrorlea are indispensable in .'^tudving the eleotricai phe- laaaof living tin^ues, antl also in all investigations [earing upon the polar t« during the pibvu Mco of an electrical current from a butterv, ( )rdin Drily, Bvor. — Du Bois-Rey- mond proved that when the excised muscle or nerve is stimulated its demarcation current suffers a diminution or negative variation.

There does not seem to be any sound reason why a text-book for medical students should aim to present only those conclusions that have cr'stallized out of the controversies of other times, and ignore entirely the live issues of the day which are PREFACE. when it u only desired to stimulate a nen'e or iiubfcle, metal (plat* %) alirtrcxlea are emplovod. If, for instance, the excised nerve gives a demarcation current suf- ficient to cause a deflection in the galvanometer of 50 mms., then if the nerve is stimulated by a series of induction shocks the galva- nometer will show a lessened deflection, say, one of 40 mms.

Cer- tainly the amount of work of a chemical character that bears di- rectly or indirectly on the problems of physiology has shown a re- markable increase within the last decade. The iininnn, CI, with ihcir m'(£: Lliv»» t move tow Tvnl the ano^ie; there the rhiorin act.-* u\xir\ tlie waler. It is obvious that ia qaanti Lative ji1udic8 of the electiical current.'^ of animal tissues polari- Ml Mfi will drtitrriy the accuracy of the results; the demarcation current «3l whom A dimtnution due no!

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